Bribery - Practices

in
Practices

This is the payment (in money or kind) that is given or taken in a corrupt relationship. To pay or receive a bribe is corruption per se, and should be understood as the essence of corruption. A bribe is a fixed sum, a certain percentage of a contract, or any other favour in money of kind, usually paid to a state official who can make contracts on behalf of the state or otherwise distribute benefits to companies or individuals, businessmen and clients.

There are many equivalent terms to bribery, like kickbacks, gratuities, baksheesh, sweeteners, pay-offs, speed ~ and grease money, which are all notions of corruption as perceived from below, from the public. These are payments needed or demanded to make things pass swifter, smoother or more favourably through the state bureaucracy. By “greasing palms” corporations and business interests can buy for instance political favours and escape the full burden of taxation and environmental regulations, or buy protected markets and monopolies, import/export licences, etc.

Bribery, however, can also be a form of “informal” taxation, when public officials charge additional under-the-table payments or expect “gifts” from clients. It is an extractive form of bribery when for instance a government minister or party boss goes on a promotion tour, and is able to fill the luggage compartment of his car with “donations” and “gifts” from his “devoted followers”. “Bribery” is the payment (in money or kind) that is given or taken in a corrupt relationship. To pay or receive a bribe is corruption per se, and should be understood as the essence of corruption. A bribe is a fixed sum, a certain percentage of a contract, or any other favour in money of kind, usually paid to a state official who can make contracts on behalf of the state or otherwise distribute benefits to companies or individuals businessmen and clients. Corruption and Bribery 

International Resources
Maine Bribery Code 
Degree & Manner of corruption 
Anti-Bribery Initiative 
Sexual Bribery 

Corrupt Practices in Transition Economy (pdf)
Bribery, Kickbacks & Payoffs 
Electoral Bribery 
Business Approaches to Combating Bribery (pdf)
Corruption In The Transition Countries
Two More Country Ratify Anti-Bribery Convention
ENTON & Friends

National Resources
Bribery and Corruption are the currency of Africa 
Tracking the fashanu Report 
CBN linked with Greenland Holding of Panama

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